Hard or refractory ceramic

Technical ceramics is a branch of ceramics intended for its industrial applications, as opposed to artisanal (pottery) or artistic (artistic ceramics) or porcelain creations. The objective of this industry is the creation and optimization of ceramics with specific physical properties: mechanical, electrical, magnetic, optical, piezoelectric, ferroelectric, superconducting.


Technical ceramics fall into three different categories:



Ceramics are distinguished from all other materials by their particular qualities:



The hardness of ceramics is highly sought after, because it allows to obtain coatings and materials that are very resistant to wear. The low density of ceramics also makes it possible to prefer them to metals, which are much heavier, when weight is a determining criterion. These characteristics, combined with good heat resistance, make ceramics good materials for all applications where repeated friction gives off heat: cutting objects, rotary joints, drilling and excavating tools, spinning nozzles. There have even been attempts to make ceramic automotive engines lighter and more efficient than conventional engines. Even if the idea is now abandoned, ceramics nevertheless enter into the composition of many engine parts: rotors, combustion chambers, cylinder heads, valves, etc ... The strength and resistance to wear of ceramics is also one of the reasons for their use in medicine, where they enter into the composition of particularly durable prostheses (teeth, femur, knee).

See Composites
See Carbon/kevlar
See Laminates (metal/fibreglass/glass)
See Composites by the RTM process
See RTM composite machining
Cutting and machining of Ceramics by waterjet cutting